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By Associate Professor Richard B. Gunderman MD, PhD, MPH (auth.)

ISBN-10: 1846283175

ISBN-13: 9781846283178

ISBN-10: 1846288134

ISBN-13: 9781846288135

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Hence we need to focus on what is going on in the minds of learners, and in particular, among learners. Learning is not an individual sport but a team sport. Different constructivists have viewed learning in different ways. Some take a largely rational view of learning, and suggest that educators and learners should be seen as engaged in a process of systematic inquiry that is governed by objectively established methodological rules. Others take a more sociopolitical view of learning, arguing that all rules are themselves social constructions, and there are no objective standards to which educators can appeal.

Gestalt is a German word that denotes shape or form, and one of the key ideas behind gestalt psychology is the view that a set of sensory stimuli can be interpreted in different ways, or remain fundamentally incoherent, depending on what is happening in the mind of the observer. Unlike the behaviorists, the gestalt psychologists believed that it is vital to attempt to peer inside the mind of the learner, to see how we find or create meaning in the world around us. Examples of the construction of more complex orders of meaning from simpler components include a motion picture, where the eye sees a rapid sequence of static images that the mind assembles into a continuous sequence of motion.

Are there bacteria in the patient’s urine? By using case scenarios to assess learner understanding, we encourage learners to think in ways that will serve them best in caring for patients. Experts not only get the right answers. They also look for better questions. When a novice asks a question of an expert, the expert may do more for the novice by asking a question than by providing the answer. For example, the novice may present a choice between two different options for diagnostic testing, but the expert may, by asking a question of the novice, point out that additional history taking might render both tests unnecessary.

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Achieving Excellence in Medical Education by Associate Professor Richard B. Gunderman MD, PhD, MPH (auth.)

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