By Arun K. Majumdar
This identify offers a complete, unified instructional protecting the newest advances within the rising expertise of free-space optics (FSO), a box during which curiosity and a focus keep growing besides the variety of new demanding situations. This ebook is meant as an all-inclusive resource to serve the wishes of these who require information regarding the basics of FSO, in addition to updated complex wisdom of the cutting-edge within the applied sciences to be had this present day. this article is meant for graduate scholars, and also will be valuable for study scientists and engineers with an curiosity within the field.
FSO communique is a realistic answer for making a 3 dimensional international broadband communications grid, supplying bandwidths some distance past what's attainable within the Radio Frequency (RF) variety. even though, the attributes of atmospheric turbulence and scattering impose perennial obstacles on availability and reliability of FSO hyperlinks. From a structures point-of-view, this groundbreaking publication offers an intensive realizing of channel habit, which are used to layout and assessment optimal transmission recommendations that function lower than practical atmospheric conditions.
Topics addressed contain:
• FSO actual and Statistical types: Single/Multiple Inputs/Outputs
• knowing FSO: concept and platforms research
• Modulation and Coding for Free-Space Optical Channels
• Atmospheric Mitigation and repayment for FSO hyperlinks
• Non-line-of-sight (NLOS) Ultraviolet and Indoor FSO Communications
• FSO structures: UAV and cellular
• Retromodulators at no cost house facts hyperlinks
• Hybrid Optical RF Communications
• Free-space and Atmospheric Quantum Communications
• different similar issues: Chaos-based and Terahertz (THz) FSO Communications
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Additional info for Advanced Free Space Optics (FSO): A Systems Approach
Generation of the P-N beam using a thin annular ring placed at the front focal plane of the Fourier lens and illuminated by a spatially filtered and collimated laser beam is described in . The use of an axicon to generate P-N beam is also discussed in that reference . The researchers in the reference  presented a binary optical element (BOE) that shapes and incident place wave or divergent spherical wave into a non-diffractive beam. 3 FSO Communications in Presence of Atmosphere 39 Mathematical Description The intensity distribution of the non-diffracting beam at the different propagation distances for the case of a spherical wave incidence is explained in the reference .
Absorption and scattering due to particulate matter may significantly attenuate the transmitted optical signal, while the wave-front quality of a signal-carrying laser beam transmitting through the atmosphere can be severely degraded, causing intensity fading, increased bit error rates, and random signal losses at the receiver. Random fluctuation in the irradiance of the received optical laser beam caused by atmospheric turbulence usually refers to an effect called scintillation. Therefore, atmosphere can be a limiting factor in reliable high-data rate wireless FSO optical communication link performance.
K. 2 Statistical Description of Random Processes and Random Fields In this section, a brief description of the statistical descriptions of the random processes and random fields will be provided which will be helpful in understanding the random nature of the atmospheric parameters that affect the propagation. 1 Random Variables and Random Process In nature, there are many physical quantities, such as wind speed, ocean waves, air temperature, and seismic signal for earthquakes that show the behavior of very irregular random fluctuations of different amplitudes and frequency of occurrence.
Advanced Free Space Optics (FSO): A Systems Approach by Arun K. Majumdar