By Pentti O. Kettunen
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Axial compression (direction –X1 in Fig. 28) also results first in elastic deformation, but the subsequent plastic deformation starts by buckling of the cell walls. In polymeric cell structures, an anelastic (viscoelastic) buckling precedes this plastic buckling. The anelastic buckling changes the direction of the external force in relation to the cell wall structure and in that way increases the occurrence probability of the plastic buckling. The plastic buckling increase the plateau formation in the strain hardening curve started by the anelastic buckling.
45. Strain-hardening curves of early and late wood sections from the stem and those of contrasting and compression wood sections from a branch, all taken from a spruce (Picea abies). al. /28/). As the figure illustrates, the effect of the deviation angle is of similar type as that mentioned earlier in the case of elastic/anelastic properties. The deviation angle does not influence only the elastic/anelastic and strength properties, but also the occurrence of fracture. Already a deviation angle of 5 degrees causes the fracture to assume the mode of shear fracture, and a deviation angle over 25 degrees makes the fracture to proceed between the macrofibrils (see Fig.
3. , on the strain hardening behavior of material. Normally strength increases as a function of increasing loading rate. This is why it is important that designing of constructions is based on strength values measured at stress or strain rates corresponding to those appearing during the subsequent practical application. , metals. This is not necessary true. Under unidirectional strain, both respond rather similarly to the strain rate and a rapid increase in yield strength as a function of strain rate is reached at the strain rate value of about 103 s-1 /23/.
Advances in Materials Science of Wood by Pentti O. Kettunen