By J. Bruce Amstutz
While Soviet army forces invaded Afghanistan in past due 1979, the invasion used to be, immediately, an try to shop a tottering Marxist govt and a caution to either East and West that the Brezhnev Doctrine of "necessary intervention" will be enforced.
Dr. J. Bruce Amstutz, U. S. cost d’affaires in Kabul from 1977 to 1980, starts off his remedy of the 1st 5 years of Soviet profession with an historic evaluation of years of Russian meddling in Afghan affairs. He follows this account with a first-hand file of the 1979 invasion, then analyzes that intervention from political, army, and financial views. one of the very important concerns Dr. Amstutz discusses are the various Afghan political factions - pro-Soviet and resistance - their leaders, the human rights and refugee difficulties, diplomatic efforts to settle the clash, and Soviet measures to repress and indoctrinate the Afghans.
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Additional resources for Afghanistan: The First Five Years of Soviet Occupation
However, in little more than a decade two developments would change the situation: a communist party would take power in Russia, and Afghanistan would win back its right to conduct its foreign relations. THE "SOCIALIST KING,^ AMANULLAH KHAN (1919-1929) In February 1919 the 20-year-old Amanullah Khan came to the throne in Kabul. Although he was to rule for only 10 yean before fleeing to exile in Rome, his influence on both domestic aiiu foreign policy was considerable. In the decades that followed his exile he was greatly admired by many Afghan intellectuals.
British replies were evasive or noncommittal; but in 1939. 40 With the benefit of hindsight, the British and Afghans did have grounds for concern from an unexpected quarter—Na/i Germany. After World War II. researchers studying Na/i archives discovered a proposal by Berlin to Moscou in 1939 or earlv 1940 that Amanullah be brought out of exile in Rome to serve as nominal leader of a Soviet-led invasion of Afghanistan. Labelled the Amanullah Plan, the proposal called tor an invasion carried out bv The Great Game 17 disguised Soviet forces and German commandos, reminiscent of the abortive Soviet intervention of 1929.
When Western diplomats expressed concern to senior Afghan officials about the extent of Soviet penetration in the Afghan military, Afghan officials scoffed at the concern. *'' SOVIET TRADE AND AID COME TO PREDOMINATE Just as Moscow became the most important arms supplier to Afghanistan, so too Moscow gradually emerged as Afghanistan's principal trading partner and economic aid donor. TRADE The USSR achieved its preeminent trading position in part by taking advantage of trade embargoes and disruptions that Pakistan imposed on Afghanistan between 1947 and 1955.
Afghanistan: The First Five Years of Soviet Occupation by J. Bruce Amstutz