By Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development
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Nearby fiscal preparations equivalent to loose alternate components (FTAs), customs unions, and forex blocs, became more and more regularly occurring on this planet economic system. either pervasive and debatable, regionalization has a few economists confident in regards to the possibilities it creates and others apprehensive that it might corrupt fragile efforts to inspire worldwide unfastened exchange.
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The area turns out awash in monetary crises. The Asian main issue of 1998, the near-demise of long-term Capital administration, and the black gap of Russia are only some of the latest. Are they the results of grasping speculators, crony capitalism, or the warp velocity of the forces of globalization? will we ship within the repairman and get issues mounted during the felony and regulatory platforms?
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3 million civil war refugees. 40 Chad has a long history of north-south tension with which its weak democratic structure cannot cope. Strengthening institutions is also a much slower process than building a pipeline. They remain rudimentary and training, justice and democratic institutions are not seen as a priority. 6 per cent of the world’s oil. Africa is thus paradoxically a major importer of oil products (39 per cent of its total energy imports, compared with the world average of 19 per cent), which is a very heavy macroeconomic (budget and current account) burden.
However, African countries seem to be making good progress towards closing the gender gap in primary education, with 13 countries having already achieved the target and © AfDB/OECD 2004 Overview 16 countries on track. The results for progress in promoting gender equality and empowering women in secondary education are not as good: only 7 countries have already achieved the target; 12 are on track. The steady reduction of gender disparities in primary education means that, though the region may not fulfil the MDG target by 2005, it will probably do so by 2015.
According to a 1998 World Bank survey of 115 developing countries, Latin American countries had already undertaken almost three quarters of the reform steps, whereas in Africa only one sixth of the steps had been taken. The Reform Pathway Power reform mainly aims at introducing competition in the upstream and downstream functions of industry structure and at adopting regulation of the wholesale and retail power markets to protect consumer interests. 46 Past experience22 shows that a full reform programme involves the following stages (see Figure 14): Political interference in the regulatory framework • Formulating a power policy providing the guidelines of the reform programmes.
African Economic Outlook, 2003 2004 by Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development