By Lincoln C. Chen, Jaime Sepulveda Amor, Sheldon J. Segal
Over the prior decade, the AIDS pandemic has propagated so extensively and exerted this type of dev astating impression that one might appropriately ask the query, Why no longer focus all AIDS efforts on illness keep an eye on by myself? Why hyperlink AIDS with women's reproductive future health? what's the medical foundation for this linkage? and the way could reduction~ regulate and women's overall healthiness targets be promot ed concurrently? those questions represent the central subject matters addressed during this monograph. The 15 chapters during this quantity are meant to supply state of the art experiences of key interac tions among AIDS and women's reproductive wellbeing and fitness for an viewers of scientists and coverage makers within the AIDS and inhabitants fields. Impetus for this monograph is available in pan from what we understand to be an insufficient international reaction, so far, to AIDS and women's future health ;>roblems. a typical platform has did not emerge one of the disparate expert groups operating within the parts of AIDS, STDs, and kinfolk making plans. for this reason, endeavors in those fields were remoted, and possibilities for joint motion were neglected. an important and, as but, unharnessed power exists for strength ful interdisciplinary collaborations which may increase rules and courses opposed to those urgent illnesses of humankind.
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Extra info for AIDS and Women’s Reproductive Health
As 30 offensive as this may be to the moral beliefs of some, it must be acknowledged that those teenagers who are sexually active should be encouraged to protect themselves and others against AIDS. AIDS is not mentioned in the President's National Drug Control Strategy, even though needlefsharing is one of the chief modes of transmission (6). Nevertheless, a number of cities in the United States have introduced educational and behavior change programs intended to reduce dependence on intravenous drugs and to reduce the risk of HIV transmission among intravenous drug abusers.
In HIV-Iinfected women with genital ulcers, HIV-l was isolated from 4 of 36 ulcers (11 %) cultured. HlV1 was also isolated from the cervical secretions of 2 of 4 women with positive ulcer cultures. LACK OF CmCUMCISION AS A FACTOR INCREASING SUSCEPTIBILITY OF MEN TOHIV-l The presence of a foreskin appears to be a factor influencing susceptibility of men to HIV-l. The exact mechanism by which this occurs is uncertain, but several potential mechanisms can be proposed: 1) the area underneath the foreskin provides a warm, moist environment, which enhances virus survival; 2) minor inflammatory conditions are common in uncircumcised men, and these could pennit virus penetration by producing mucosal breaks; and 3) the foreskin could be more susceptible to trauma and microscopic bleeding during intercourse, producing portals of entry for the virus.
As men must be infected for women to become infected, how could female-to-male transmission be particularly rare? To achieve these prevalence levels with low female-to-male transmission rates, a long period of time, extremely high numbers of sexual partners, or another route of transmission was required. In considering how female-to-male transmission of HIV-l might be enhanced in some circumstances, one can conceive of two categories of risk factors: factors that alter the susceptibility of exposed men, and factors that increase the infectivity of HIV-l-infected women for their sex partners.
AIDS and Women’s Reproductive Health by Lincoln C. Chen, Jaime Sepulveda Amor, Sheldon J. Segal