By Ramón Gómez Ledesma
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Extra resources for An Experimental Investigation on the Air Entrainment by Plunging Jets
The constant We is defined as the ratio of air friction to surface tension forces. Both theories are in good agreement with the experiments. McKeogh and Ervine (1980)  published an empirical correlation that gives the amount of air entrained by water jets as a function of the flow rate and the turbulence level. In the same paper, 13 the authors presented a method to approximately predict the air concentration pattern in the underwater jet plume and the penetration depth of the aerated region.
The entrainment mechanism for these jets usually results from externally produced perturbations in the incoming jet (jet turbulence, for instance), which drive the formation and pinch-off of air cavities below the free surface (Zhu, Oguz and Prosperetti (2000) ). For both viscous and non-viscous jets, the literature has widely reported on the critical inception jet velocity beyond which air entrainment occurs. Lin and Donnelly (1965)  determined experimentally the critical inception velocity for laminar jets for a variety of fluids, jet diameters and jet velocities.
They stated that their jet nozzle was specially designed to minimize jet turbulence, unlike some of the previous authors’. They 12 reiterate that artificial disturbances on the incoming jet need to be produced for the air to be entrained. The jet impact angle has also been found to have a large influence on the critical inception velocity for plunging jets. For instance, Detsch and Sharma (1990)  conducted a series of experiments with fluids of different densities, viscosities and surface tensions.
An Experimental Investigation on the Air Entrainment by Plunging Jets by Ramón Gómez Ledesma