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The volumetric flow rate from a mud pump can be easily assessed by either counting strokes per minute of the mud pump (and knowing the capacity of the pump in gallons per stroke and then calculating the output of the pump in gallons per minute), or by providing the rig floor with an accurate volumetric flow rate gauge. The volumetric flow rate of air (or other gases) to the well is vital knowledge for a successful drilling operation and its knowledge must also be made available to the rig personnel.

The drilling mud is incompressible and, therefore, the specific 3 weight is 75 lb/ft (or 10 lb/gal) at any position in the circulation system. There is some slight expansion of the drilling mud due to the increase in temperature as the drilling mud flows to the bottom of the well. This effect is quite small and is neglected in these engineering calculations. Figure 1-20: Mud drilling specific weight versus depth. 1-22 Air and Gas Drilling Manual Figure 1-21 shows the plot of the specific weight of the compressed air in this example.

This type of flow has a drill string injection pressure at the top that is higher than the pressure above the drill bit at the bottom. Friction dominated flow results when the drill bit is run with no nozzles. Figure 1-22 is the concluding plot of these example calculations. This shows the side-by-side comparison of the annulus velocities of the drilling mud and the compressed air as they flow to the surface. It is the power of these return flows up the annulus that keeps the rock cuttings entrained and moving to the surface at a rate that allows the drill bit to be safely advanced.

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Analog and Digital Communcations (Theory and Problems of) [Schaum's Outlines] by H. Hsu

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