By Rui Diogo
This publication demanding situations the belief that morphological info are inherently fallacious for phylogeny reconstruction, argues that either molecular and morphological phylogenies should still play a huge position in systematics, and offers the main accomplished evaluation of the comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the pinnacle, neck, pectoral and higher limb muscle tissues of primates.
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Additional info for Comparative Anatomy and Phylogeny of Primate Muscles and Human Evolution
Euarchonta (clade 2: Tupaia, Cynocephalus, Lemur, Propithecus, Loris, Nycticebus, Tarsius, Pithecia, Aotus, Callithrix, Saimiri, Colobus, Cercopithecus, Papio, Macaca, Hylobates, Pongo, Gorilla, Pan, Homo) Sternofacialis is not a distinct muscle [25:0→1], Interscutularis is not a distinct muscle [26:0→1], Frontalis is a distinct muscle [32:0→1], Auricularis superior is a distinct muscle [33:0→1], Corrugator supercilii is a distinct muscle [36:0→1], Spinotrapezius is not a distinct muscle [43:0→1], Chondroglossus is present as a distinct bundle of the hyoglossus [58:0→1], Biceps brachii has no bicipital aponeurosis [105:0→1], Extensor digiti quarti is not a distinct muscle [158:0→1].
5). Across the primate clade as a whole the results of the analyses of this (FOS) dataset are encouraging; the consensus tree obtained in the parsimony analysis of this dataset (Fig. 5) recovers 15 (75%) of the 20 clades shown in the parsimony tree of Fig. 2 and in the molecular tree of Fig. 1. However, with respect to the hominoids the results are discouraging for it groups Hylobates with the Homininae and Gorilla with Homo (Fig. 5); the implications of this have been discussed elsewhere (Diogo et al.
3). It is not recovered in the parsimony analysis of the HN dataset, but it is recovered (CSV 76) in the Bayesian analysis of this latter dataset (Fig. 3). The adductor pollicis became weakly differentiated into transverse and oblique heads in the Haplorrhini, and then these heads became further differentiated in catarrhines. The fusion between the latissimus dorsi and teres major was independently acquired in Tupaia, and secondarily lost in Homininae. The opponens digiti minimi became slightly differentiated into superficial and deep bundles in the Catarrhini, and then these heads became further separated in cercopithecids.
Comparative Anatomy and Phylogeny of Primate Muscles and Human Evolution by Rui Diogo